Lucknow Pact 1916
Quaid-e-Azam after joining the Muslim League devised a plan to bring the two major political platforms of Subcontinent, Congress and Muslim League, closer so that they could work more efficiently for the freedom of India. For this purpose he increased back door interaction between the leaders of both political parties and finally succeeded in concluding Lucknow Pact 1916, which aimed at mutual cooperation between the two parties of Subcontinent.
Lucknow Pact 1916
Muslim League on advice of Quaid-e-Azam holds its annual session of 1915 in Bombay where Congress too was holding its session. The objective of Quaid-e-Azam behind this move was to create feelings of goodwill and friendship between the two parties. During this meeting both parties appointed Reforms Committees.
In December 1916, Congress and Muslim League held joint session for the first time in political history of Subcontinent. The Reforms Committees had already devised an agreed scheme for the solution of Hindu-Muslim problems and constitution reforms in their meeting at Calcutta in November 1916.
Constitutional Reforms Scheme Of Lucknow Pact
The scheme prepared by the Reforms Committees for constitutional reforms and constitutional development in India was presented before the two political parties for approval which they readily approved and an agreement was signed for mutual cooperation between the two parties under this scheme which is known as Lucknow Pact 1916 in history. Both Congress and Muslim League decided to submit the jointly approved scheme before the Government after the war (World War I) for introduction of self-Government in India.
Some of the recommendations for constitutional reforms in India, presented by the Reforms Committees, are given below.
Important Points Of Lucknow Pact
- Provincial legislative councils will have 4/5 elected and 1/5 nominated members
- Members elections directly by people for 5 years
- Legislative councils strength: 125 seats in major and 50-75 seats in minor provinces
- Muslim members election through separate electorate and their strength: Punjab 50%, Bengal 40%, UP 30%, Bihar 25%, CP 15%, Madras 15%
- Bill affecting one or more communities shall not be presented in the Assembly unless approved by the community
- Maximum autonomy will be given to provinces
- Establishment of executive council in provinces under Governor. Half members would be Indians elected by the elected members of Legislative Council. Term of office 5 years.
- Right of Assembly members to present adjournment motion.
- Reserved seats for Muslims in Hindu majority provinces
- Protection to Hindus in Muslim majority provinces
- Imperial Legislative Council in center with 150 members. 4/5 members shall be elected and Muslims will have 1/3 seats in elected members through separate electorate.
- Governor General, head of central government, would be assisted by an executive council. Half of the members of executive council would be Indians, elected by the elected members of Imperial Legislative Council.
Importance Of Lucknow Pact
- Established an air of amity, friendship and brotherhood
- The political environment of subcontinent stabilized
- Freedom from British was declared a unanimous objective
- Paved way for stable political advancement of Muslims
- Muslims were assured constitutional safeguard
- Develop an air to jointly work for the attainment of self-Government in India
- Bright chapter in dark and gloomy environs of Indian political history
Termination Of The Pact
The Lucknow Pact 1916, soon came to an end due to the change in political activism of Congress especially after Gandhi took over the control of the party.