Shah Waliullah Services
The decline of Mughal rule in Subcontinent began in 1th century after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb. The successors of Aurangzeb were the most incompetent rulers who had an obvious inclined towards luxurious life and had no interest in statecraft. With the weakening of state roots infidel forces once again stimulated and Muslim society in India was once again in grave danger. To crush every plan of infidel forces and to bring peace and stability to Muslims society in India, Hazrat Shah Waliullah emerged on the horizon of Muslim society in these chaotic conditions.
Who Was Shah Waaliullah?
Hazrat Shah Waliullah was a saint and Muslim reformist of 18th century. He was born on 21 February 1703 in Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pardesh, India, four years before the death of Emperor Aurangzeb. His real name was Qutub ud Din but was commonly called Shah Waliullah due to his pious habits. His father Shah Abdur Rahim was a famous sufi and theologian of his time who was running his own Madrassah called Madrassah Rahimya.
Early Ages Of Shah Waliullah
Shah Waliullah received his early education from his father and great father. He completed his studies in all prevalent customs and traditions at the age of fifteen. He received education in spiritualism, mysticism, Hadith, Tafsir and Ilm ul Kalam. He memorized Holy Quran in his early years.
Teaching At Madrassah Rahimya
Shah Abdur Rahim, father of Shah Waliullah died in 1720 at the age of 77 when Shah Waliullah was only 17 years old. He transferred authority in Sufism (Ba’ia) and Spiritualism (Irshad) to Shah Waliullah at his death bed and said “his hand is my hand (Hafeez Saeed – Muslim Nationalism in India and Pakistan)”. After father death Shah Waliullah taught at Madrassah Rahimya for 12 years.
Shah Waliullah went to Arabia for higher studies and performing Hajj. In Arabia he received education from most capable and learned teachers of Makkah and Madina.
Shah Waliullah Services
Shah Waliullah services for Muslim community of Subcontinent are countless. He did work on different grounds to help, protect and stabilize Muslims community in united India. Shah Waliullah services for Muslim community of India are collectively called as Shah Waliullah Movements. Some of his valuable services have been discussed in below paragraphs.
Shah Waliullah Movements
Shah Waliullah services comprised of his political, religious and social work and efforts that he had performed for the uplift and stability of Muslims rule over India. His services for Muslims of India can be divided into the following headings.
Political Services Of Shah Waliullah
During those days Mughal Empire was passing through the most unstable political conditions within the state. Mughal princes were often involved in mutual fights over throne and due to their lack of experience and interest in state’s affairs many small states have declared their independence and separation from empire. Shah Waliullah not only through his speeches and literary work tried to evoke the spirit of nationalism among Muslims of Subcontinent but also wrote letters to local chiefs from time to time to play their role in the stability of empire.
Role Of Shah Waliullah in Opposing The Marhattas
One of the major political services of Shah Waliullah was his role in opposing the Marhattas. By that time the rise of Marhattas and Sikhs had posed serious problems for the Muslim rulers. Mughal rulers due to their internal conflicts and incapability were in no position to crush the might of Marhattas, Sikhs and other non-Muslim forces and withhold the supremacy of Muslims rule over India.
Marhattas were planning to overthrow Muslims rule and put Peshwa’s son Biswas Rao on the throne Delhi, the capital of Mughal Empire. Understanding this Shah Waliullah wrote letters to many local Muslim chiefs such as Najib ud Daula, Shuja ud Daula and Rehmat Khan to attack on Delhi but their military was of no match to Marhattas. Finally Shah Waliullah wrote letter to Ahmed Shah Abdali, the king of Afghanistan, who on his advice attacked on Marhattas in 1761 (Third Battle of Panipat) and crushed their might forever.
Religious Services Of Shah Waliullah
By the time of Shah Waliullah Muslims society was divided into many factions, each with different views and beliefs about some religious teachings. To cope with the situation Shah Waliullah trained some students and gave them knowledge in different branches of Islamic learning and sent them in different parts of India with the mission to reunite Muslims community of India.
Shah Waliullah thoroughly studied all Schools of thought of Islamic Fiqh and explained different contentious matters in a mild and sophisticated way without hurting the feelings of any community of Muslims.
In order to remove misunderstanding between Sunni and Shia community of Muslims, Shah Waliullah wrote two famous books, Izalat-al-Akhifa and Khilafat-al-Khulafa.
Social Services Of Shah Waliullah
Muslims society of India of that time was also faced with social unrest. Due to chaotic political and religious conditions there was atmosphere of uncertainty and agitation in India. Shah Waliullah through his wisdom and teachings not only reunite Muslim community but also created an atmosphere of harmonious relations between Muslim and Non-Muslim communities of India.
Shah Waliullah Dehlvi Books
Shah Waliullah was prolific writer. He had authored a number of books, fifty in all. Some of the famous books of Shah Waliullah are given below.
In this book Shah Waliullah had discussed in detail the causes of social and political decline of Muslim Ummah and the importance of Ijtihad and qualification criteria for a competent Mujathid.
Izalat-al-Akhifa and Khilafat-al-Khulafa
In both these books Shah Waliullah had made an effort to remove misunderstanding between Sunni and Shia Muslims. In those days the mutual conflict of Sunnis and Shias was damaging Muslims unity.
Al Insaf-fi-Bayan Sahab-al-Ikhtilaf
Through this book Shah Waliullah had tried to create a balance between all the four Sunni schools that is Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki and Hanbali by tracing their historical background.
Shah Waliullah Translation Of Holy Quran Into Persian
One of the stupendous literary works of Shah Waliullah was the Persian translation of Holy Quran in 1737-38. His objective behind the production of this master piece was to make the Holy Quran comprehensible for an ordinary person in which he succeeded to a greater extent.
Then his two sons Shah Rafi-ud-Din and Shah Abdul Qadir prepared Urdu version of Holy Quran a few years later.
Shah Waliullah Sons
Names of Shah Waliullah three famous sons are Shah Rafi-ud-Din, Shah Abdul Qadir and Shah Abdul Aziz. Shah Abdul Qadir and Shah Rafi ud Din had translated Holy Quran to Urdu language while Shah Abdul Aziz was mentor of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brailvi. He had another son with the name of Sheikh Muhammad.
Shah Waliullah Grave
Shah Waliullah died on August 20, 1763, at the age of sixty and was buried in Delhi, India.