The post explains “All India Muslim League – its formation and history 1906 – 1947. The formation of All India Muslim League. The emergence of All India Muslim League in Indian politics. Causes of formation of Muslim League. What were the objectives of Muslim League?”
All India Muslim League – its formation and history 1906 – 1947
All India National Congress at the time of its formation in 1885 had claimed that it will work for the welfare of all Indians, irrespective of their cast, creed and religion. The true motive of the party, however, revealed on Muslims when it came forward in an open opposition to the partition of Bengal, which was the only step that British Raj in India had taken in best interest of Muslims since their occupation of the Sub-continent in 1857. It made clear to the Muslims that the Hindus and Congress would never allow them to have a respectable place in the Indian society.
The formation of All India Muslim League
The success of Hindu and Congress agitation against Urdu and partition of Bengal proved to the Muslims that the government listened only to an organized point of view. The Muslims believed that only an organized endeavor would lead them to success. Similarly the success of Simla Deputation made it imperative for the Muslims of the Sub continent to have their own political organization. The Congress anti-Muslim activities too strengthened the need of a political platform for the Muslims from where the interests of Muslims could be projected.
The Muslim leaders of Simla Deputation after their meeting with the Viceroy held consultation among themselves as to the possibility of forming a political association. At the end of All India Muslim Educational Conference held at Dacca in 1906, Nawab Salimullah Khan of Dacca, convened a political meeting of the Muslim leaders at his residence. The objective of the meeting was to discuss the possibilities of forming a political association for the Muslims. The meeting was presided over by Nawab Waqar ul Mulk. In his presidential speech he stressed on the need of a political platform for the Muslims.
Nawab Salimullah Khan therefore moved a resolution which was supported by Hakim Ajmal Khan, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and other participants. The resolution declared:
“Resolved that this meeting composed of Muslims from all parts of India assembled at Dacca decide that Political Association be formed styled as All India Muslim League.”
Nawab Mohsin ul Mulk and Nawab Viqar ul Mulk were elected provisionally as Joint Secretaries of the Muslim League. A committee consisting of sixty members was set up to draft the constitution of the Muslim League. Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar was given the responsibility to draft rules and regulation of the league. The rules and regulations drafted by Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar were contained in a brochure called ‘Green Book.’
The Emergence of All India Muslim League in Indian Politics
Soon after its formation, the Muslim League met with immediate successes on many grounds in the political system of Indian Subcontinent. It successfully secured seats for Muslims in public sector and in local, provincial and central legislative bodies. It also demanded the appointment of Muslim judges in the courts. The incorporation of separate electorate for Muslims in Minto Morley Reforms 1909 was made possible only with the efforts of Muslim League.
Causes of the Formation of All India Muslim League
Events and circumstances that pushed Muslim leaders to think about a separate political platform and ultimately established Muslim League are unlimited. However some of the major causes of the formation of Muslim League are given below.
The Urdu Hindi controversy was the first time when Muslims of India felt isolated in the country. All Hindu prominent leaders who claimed to be the leaders of all Indians irrespective of cast and beliefs came forward in an open opposition to the use of Urdu as an official language.
The Muslims of India after the establishment of British Raj were left leaderless and economically devastated. They therefore always felt themselves insecure and at the mercy of Hindus. They badly needed a political platform that works for their welfare and secure their due rights and share in the country.
Another great reason of the establishment of All India Muslim League was, Muslims of India from their experience had learned that government listened only to an organized point of view. To get the attention of British Raj and they have say in the political affairs of the country, the Muslims of India needed a political platform from where their political ideology should be propagated.
The success of Simla Deputation provoked Muslims to create a political platform that works for the social, political and economic welfare of the Muslim community.
Though All India Congress claimed to be the political party of all Indians but in reality it was working for the welfare of Hindus only. Muslims of India had no true representation in the political affairs of the country.
Though many prominent Muslim scholars and politicians were working for the welfare of the Muslims but they all were raising their voice individually. They had no platform to join and raise their voice collectively. Due to this reason the Muslims of India were leaderless.
Aims and Objectives of Muslim League
One of the foremost objectives of the formation of All India Muslim League was to have a say of the Muslims in the political affairs of the country.
To secure the rights and due shares of Muslims in the country, it was the only way. Through collective efforts they can achieve political success, which was only possible through a political platform that works solely for the welfare of the Muslims.
After the establishment of British Raj in India, Muslims were living in shabby condition. Their political and economic setup was completely destroyed by the British and they were left scattered and leaderless with no future. The objective of the formation of All India Muslim League was to unite all Muslims under one platform.
Another great objective of the formation of Muslim League was to represent Muslims, the largest minority of India, in the local, provincial and central legislative bodies.
Success of Muslim League
The greatest success of Muslim League was the formation of an independent Muslims state, Pakistan, for the Muslims of India.
All India Muslim League successfully incorporated the right of separate electorates for Muslims in Minto Morley Reforms 1909.
It also successfully secured seats for Muslims in public sector and in local, provincial and central legislative bodies.
On the political horizon the Muslims of India before the formation of All India Muslim League had no true representation.