Checkered Democratic History Of Pakistan – CSS Essay

The essay is about “checkered democratic history of Pakistan. Evolution of democratic system in Pakistan CSS. Suggestions for democracy in Pakistan. checkered democratic history of Pakistan “.

Checkered Democratic History Of Pakistan

checkered democratic history of pakistan


  • Pakistan was meant to be an Islamic democratic state.
  • Despite passing of more than seventy years, democratic values in the country could not flourish.

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Checkered Democratic History

  • Limited Marital Law in Punjab in 1954 in Tehrik-i-Khatm-e-Nabuwat by Major General Muhammad Azam Khan (Maulana Abu-al-Alaa Maudoodi and Maulana Abdul Sattar Khan Niazi arrested)
  • President Iskandar Mirza dismissal of ministries and declaration of emergency on 7 October 1958. Ayub Khan took over on 27 October.  Adopted new constitution.
  • Ayub Khan imposed Martial Law on 25th March by abrogating constitution. Yahya Khan took over on 25th March 1969 as President and Marital Law administrator. Fall of Dhaka
  • Zulfiqar took over on 20th December 1971.
  • Elections of 1977. Creation of Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). Rigging allegations. 4th July announced fresh elections but crises provided an excellent opportunity to military take over.
  • Zia took over on 5th July 1977. Initial statement of holding elections in 90 days. Died in accidental plane crash on 17 August 1988.
  • Benazir Bhutto became PM on 1st December 1988 with 93 out of 207 NA seats (Marginal majority). Nawaz Sharif was CM Punjab. Due to conflict with President Ghulam Ishaq Khan on Chief Of Army Staff and Chief Judges appointment, Ghulam Ishaq Khan through 58.2.B dissolved National Assembly in August 1990.
  • Elections held in October 1990. Nawaz having support of 153 NA members became Prime Minister. Benazir Bhutto offer for 8th amendment repeal. Sudden death of COAS Asif Nawaz in 1993, differences emerged between Prime Minister and President. Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolved National Assembly on 18th April 1993. Supreme Court judgment restored Nawaz government on 26 May 1993. On 18th July 1993, on advised on PM Nawaz Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolved NA.
  • Benazir Bhutto became PM after October 1993 election by securing comparative majority (86 party’s votes plus 35 independent = 121 seats against Nawaz 72). Party’s General Secretary FarooqLaghari became president. Due to law and order situation, family feuds, horse trading and chief judges appointment create a rift between PM and President. Laghari dissolved NA on 5th November 1996.
  • Nawaz became PM on 18 February 1997. Passed 13th amendment. Laghari resigned in disgrace on 2nd December 1997. Justice Retired RafiqTarar became President on 31st December 1997. Passed 14th amendment (horse trading). Removal of COAS Jhangir Karamat and appointment of Pervez Musharaf on 7th Octber 1998. Appointment of Lt. General Zia-ud-Din. Return of Musharaf from Sri Lanka on 12 Oct. 1999. Took over on 13th Oct. 1999.
  • Musharaf proclaimed emergency (neither martial law nor president-ship). Became Chief Executive on 14th October 1999. Promulgated PCO 14th October 1999 (governance, orders of Chief Executive), LFO on 21st August 2002. Quit from President Office in August 2008 due to mounting pressure of public.

Causes Of Interruption

  • Military and bureaucracy intervention
  • Delay in constitution making
  • Misuse of power
  • Immature political behavior
  • Foreign intervention
  • Institutional conflicts
  • Alteration of constitution for self-motives
  • Political instability

Current Situation

  • Still evolving
  • Political instability
  • Military intervention (indirect)


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