The article discusses “Concept of governance and its application in the light of Quran Sunnah and Fiqh. CSS. Good governance in Islam. Concept of governance and its application in the light of Quran Sunnah and Fiqh. Concept of governance and its application in the light of Quran Sunnah and Fiqh.”
Concept Of Governance And Its Application in The Light Of Quran Sunnah And Fiqh
In Islam the concept of governance is completely different from that of the West. In an Islamic state people are governed according to the injunctions of Holy Quran, Sunnah and Fiqh. Some of the main characteristics of Islamic governance have been highlighted in below paragraphs.
In an Islamic state ruler is considered the vicegerent of Allah Almighty. This means he is not completely free in his actions. He acts on the behalf of a superior entity to which he is answerable. Statesmanship in an Islamic state is considered a sacred trust from Allah Almighty. This concept keeps a ruler in control. The Holy Quran says
“These are the limits set by Allah, so do not go near them.” – Surah Al Baqara 187
In an Islamic state ruler is dual accountable. On the surface of the earth, he is answerable to the public while in after life, to Allah Almighty. The ruler is required to act meticulously in every aspect of the statesmanship because he will be asked for his every action on the Day of Judgement. Abdullah ibn Umar reported: Allah Messenger said
“Every one of you is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock. The leader of people is a guardian and is responsible for his subjects. A man is the guardian of his family and he is responsible for them. A woman is the guardian of her husband’s home and his children and she is responsible for them. The servant of a man is a guardian of the property of his master and he is responsible for it. No doubt, every one of you is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock.” Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 7138, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1829
Whereas Islam has ordered the ruler to rule the public wisely and justly, it also has ordered the public to obey their caliph until he is not involved in major sins. The Holy Quran says
“O believers! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Should you disagree on anything, then refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you ˹truly˺ believe in Allah and the Last Day. This is the best and fairest resolution.” – Surah An Nisa 59
In an Islamic state the relationship of ruler with subjects is threefold. He acts as an agent (Wakil) of its subjects in dealing with others. Similarly he is the guardian (Wali) and protector of the rights, interests and well being of the people. Thirdly he also acts as partner (Shareek) in thin and thick, happiness and sadness and festivities and grief of people.
In an Islamic state legislature cannot make policies by themselves. They have to refer to primary source for guidance first. If they did not find any clear clue then can move to secondary and subsidiary sources of Islamic law. In legislation Holy Quran hold primary status as it contains information about every aspect of human life either in explicit or implicit terms. Allah in Holy Quran says
“Indeed We have put forth every kind of example in this Quran for mankind. But, man is ever more quarrelsome than anything.” Surah Al Kahf
Consultation is one of the most important functions of a state in Islamic political system. The idea of a pure democracy is the hallmark of Shura in Islamic state structure. The term Shura is akin to parliament in modern political science. Aatir Rizvi in his book Muslim Law and Jurisprudence has defined Shura as “a body consisting of representatives of Muslim community, who assemble for consultation with each other, to reach on decision for running the government.” These representatives are supposed to be guided by the injunctions of Quran and Sunnah.
Mutual consultation is the central idea behind Shura, as the Holy Qura’n states
“Who obey their Lord, attend to their prayers and conduct their affairs with mutual consultation.” Holy Quran (Ash Shura).
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