The article discusses “Governance under pious Khilafat CSS. Administration under pious Caliphs. Comment on the administrative structure during the pious caliphates. Political system of Islam under the prophet pbuh and the pious caliphate. Governance under pious Khilafat CSS. What social values were practiced during the reign of the pious caliphates. Comment on the administrative structure during the pious caliphates answer. Governance under pious Khilafat CSS.”
Governance Under Pious Khilafat CSS
After the demise of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) a political system for governing the newly born Muslim state was established which is known as Khilafat. The first four Khalifas of Muslim world are known as Khulifa-e-Rasheeden and their rule in Islamic history is called Khilafat-i-Rasheeda. They are Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.), Hazrat Ummar (RA), Hazrat Usman (RA) and Hazrat Ali (RA). They ruled from 632 AD to 661 AD. This becomes duration of approximately Thirty years. The governance of pious Khilafat held an important position in the history of Islamic political system because it laid the foundation of Islamic governance after the demise of Holy Prophet (PBUH). Some of the salient features of their political system have been discussed in below paragraphs.
Administration Under Pious Caliphs
Unlike later rulers of the Muslims world pious Caliphs took every step after consultation with Shura. There were two bodies of Shura; Shura-e-Aam and Shura-e-Khas.
Shura e Aaam was comprised of general public of Madina while Shura e Khas contained only the most learned and wise people of that time. Khalifa was bound to follow the final decision of Shura.
To depress hoarding, monopoly and sale and purchase of prohibited goods in the market, the pious Caliphs maintained an indirect control of it. Hazrat Umar (RA) during his reign had appointed Shifa Binte Abdullah as market supervisor. Her job was to thoroughly check the quality of goods and maintain a balanced price of goods and services in the market.
By that time agriculture was the primary sector of public earning and state’s economy. The pious Caliphs took every necessary step to modernize and develop this sector. For this purpose land acquired by the Muslim army after conquest was divided among the poor for cultivation purposes to increase crops production in the state.
Similarly to deal with water shortage many new canal systems and water reservoirs were constructed to overcome the issue. Many new techniques for cultivation of crops were copied from other civilization to improve the output of the sector.
In an Islamic Judicial system law is the word of God (Allah Almighty) which is present in the form of Holy Quran. Therefore no one is above the law and state and officials are duty bound to follow the injunctions of Holy Quran and Sunnah as it is.
Similarly in an Islamic State the head of state has power to appoint the Qazi. But once he is appointed, he no more remains answerable to the head and even the ruler is liable to appear before him whenever required. To maintain the supremacy of law, all the pious Caliphs had appeared before the court whenever required.
During the reign of all four caliphs, people had every right to impeach the caliph publically. There were no restrictions and caliphs had no special immunity. People had every right to ask the caliph for his actions. Subsequent to a holy war, sheet of clothes from spoils of war were distributed among the Muslims of Madina. Each person got one sheet. Hazrat Umar (RA) like other people also got one sheet of cloth but due to his it was not enough to be sewed. His son gave his own sheet to cloth caliph Umar and so he sewed. During the following Friday sermon a person, who was aware Umar (RA) height asked how he sewed new clothes when one sheet is not enough for him. Upon hearing this caliph Umar (RA) did not infuriated but instead praised him and explained the reason.
During the reign of first four pious caliphs every important step was taken to maintain equality both in personal and in social sphere. They denounced any social division on the basis of cast, colour and culture.
To ensure equal opportunities of development, social justice and safety, pious caliphs settled new cities. The development of new cities not only created new job opportunities but also increased economic activities within the state.
To keep balance within departments and denounce nepotism and misuse of power, the second pious caliph Umar (RA) had established a special department where complaints against state officials were investigated. This department was headed by Muhammad Ibn Muslamah, one of Hazrat Umar (RA) most trusted men.
Hazrat Umar (RA), the Second Pious Caliph was the first ruler in human history who started endowment fund to help the needy people in society. He was also the first who initiated Child Care Program through which a fixed sum of money was to be paid to parents from Bait ul Mal (treasury) for fulfilling child needs.
Pious caliphs not only looked after state affairs but also their people and their needs. The Second pious caliph, Hazrat Umar used to patrol the streets of Medina with a whip in his hand, ready to punish any offenders he might come across.
Appointment of able, trustworthy and God fearing subordinates is one of the most important steps in statesmanship. Hazrat Umar (RA) before the appointment of a Governor used to check his property and status in society. A record of governor’s total property before appointment was to be collected and then it would be checked from time to time to keep an eye on his income.
From above examples we see that governance under pious Khilafat was perfect from every angle. Due to this reason Muslim world saw an extraordinary development both socially, politically and economically.
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