Khilafat Movement 1919 – 1924

The post explains “Khilafat Movement 1919. Causes of Khilafat movement 1919. Khilafat Movement background. Objectives of Khilafat Movement. Importance of Khilafat movement 1919. Effects of Khilafat movement. Positive and negative impacts of Khilafat movement. Positive impact of Khilafat movement. Negative effects of Khilafat movement. Failure of Khilafat movement. Causes of failure of Khilafat movement. End of Khilafat movement. Conclusion of Khilafat movement.”

Khilafat Movement 1919

In World War I (1914 – 1918), Ottoman Empire fought against the Allied Forces. It was totally a political motive which was based on circumstances as well as the national interests of the empire. The Ottoman Khalifa (caliph), Sultan Mehmed Vahideddin held an important position in the heart of millions of Muslims all over the world. Muslim world considered him as their Khalifa. When the war ended and allied forces emerged victorious, they decided the dissolution of Khilafat by disintegrating the Ottoman Empire. This shook the Muslim world particularly the Muslims of Sub-continent who could not see any humiliation of the Caliphate.

Montague Chelmsford Reforms 1919

hakim ajmal khan
Hakim Ajmal Khan

In order to put pressure on the government, the Muslims of India organized themselves under the leadership of Hakim Ajmal Khan and Dr. Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari and formed Khilafat Conference. The Khilafat Conference in its meeting on 24th November 1918 decided that the Muslims of India would not take part in peace celebration if their demands were not conceded by the government. A committee was also setup under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali to launch a movement throughout the country to safeguard the institution of Khilafat. 

Causes of Khilafat Movement 1919

m a ansari
Dr. Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari

The Khalifa of Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mehmed Vahideddin was the only person who had kept Muslims united at a time when majority of the Muslim world was colonized by the west, particularly by the United Kingdom. He had the authority and power to have a say on behalf of the Muslims in the world political affairs. His dismissal would have left Muslim world leaderless and this was what the worst fear of the Muslims of United India. In order to halt this from happening they launched Khilafat Movement.

For Muslims the institution of Khilafat (Caliphate) held an important sacred position. In the event of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire the Muslims of India could not see any humiliation of the Caliph. This was another very important reason for launching the Khilafat Movement.

Non Cooperation Movement Of Gandhi Notes

maulana shaukat ali
Maulana Shaukat Ali

A cordial relation of the Muslims of India had developed with the Khalifa of Ottoman Empire after the fall of their rule in Subcontinent. Due to this reason they were not ready to see the disintegration of another powerhouse of the Muslim world after the fall of Mughal Empire. 

Another very powerful reason of Khilafat Movement was to safeguard the unity of Muslim world. Sultan Mehmed Vahideddin had held the Muslim World united and the West had to listen to his saying no matter what. Muslims of India did not want to lose this voice of the Muslim world.

Objectives of Khilafat Movement 1919

Protection of the institution of Caliphate was the foremost important objective of Khilafat Movement. Muslims of India did not want to see the total annihilation of Khilafat.

Sultan Mehmed Vahideddin
Sultan Mehmed Vahideddin

Sultan Mehmed Vahideddin had held Muslim world united under his leadership. The unity of Muslim world was as long as the Khalifa was in power. Muslims of India wanted to save this unity by averting the abolishment of the institution of Khilafat.

To save the unity and power of Muslim world, the survival of Ottoman Empire and institution of Caliphate was mandatory. To achieve this objective Muslims of India launched Khilafat Movement.

From their past experience the Muslims of India knew the consequences of the fall of a Muslim Empire. To save their Turks brother from what they had passed, they launched Khilafat Movement.

Another objective of Khilafat Movement was to avoid the disintegration of Ottoman Empire because with its fall the Muslim World would further deteriorate.

Chauri Chaura Incident 1922 Short Note

Importance of Khilafat Movement 1919

For the Muslims of India Khilafat Movement had the following importance;

  • They were not ready to see the humiliation of their Khalifa.
  • With the fall of Ottoman Empire, Muslims social, political and economic conditions would further deteriorate. To avoid this from happening, it was imperative on Muslims to save Ottoman Khilafat.

Hijrat Movement (1920) – Causes And Failure

Effects of Khilafat Movement 1919

Khilafat Movement had far reaching effects on the social, political and economic aspects of Indians particularly Muslims. It had both positive and negative impacts on the lives of Muslims of India.

Positive And Negative Impacts Of Khilafat Movement 1919

Some of the major positive and negative impacts of Khilafat Movement have been discussed in below paragraphs.

Positive Impact Of Khilafat Movement 1919

The movement provided dynamic leadership to the Muslims of India.

khilafat movement 1919 1924

Muslims of India for the first time, after the fall of their rule in Subcontinent, realized their power of united struggle.

The sudden decision of Gandhi’s call off the Non-cooperation Movement confirmed to the Muslims that the Hindu mind can never be sincere to the Muslims’ cause.

The movement effectively demonstrated the religious enthusiasm of Muslims of India.

The Khilafat Movement inculcated among the Muslims the awareness about their future.

Moplah Uprising 1921 – Rebellion, Salient Features And Leaders

The movement also strengthened the Two Nations Theory.

Khilafat Movement paved the way for future independence movement.

It was the first time since the fall of Mughal Rule in India that Muslims through Khilafat Movement and Hindus through Gandhi’s Noncooperation Movement came close and they worked together.

Negative Effects Of Khilafat Movement 1919

The Khilafat Movement added much to the economic miseries of the Muslims who resigned their jobs.

Majority of Muslims on return from Afghanistan, who had left the country in Hijrat Movement, were homeless. Their homes were either vandalized or captured by others.

Similarly they had also lost their businesses and jobs. 

Failure of Khilafat Movement 1919

Despite running the Khilafat Movement with full zeal, the movement could not achieve its goals and failed bluntly. Some of the major reasons behind the failure of Khilafat Movement have been highlighted in below paragraphs.

Causes Of Failure Of Khilafat Movement 1919

Some of the major causes of the failure of Khilafat Movement are;

Gandhi’s sudden call off the Noncooperation Movement was the biggest cause of the failure of Khilafat Movement. He made his decision at a time when the government was about to yield to their collective demands.

By the time Khilafat Movement ended all leaders of Muslims were in jail and Muslims were following Gandhi who had assumed the leadership of the movement by merging his Noncooperation with Khilafat Movement. Gandhi suddenly called off the Noncooperation Movement while from Muslim side no one was there who could make a decision.

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey elected Mustafa Kamal as their leader who abolished the institution of Caliphate by banishing the last Caliph Sultan Mehmed Vahideddin from the country.  

Shuddi and Sanghatan movements had begun converting Muslims forcefully into Hinduism which created bitterness between Muslims and Hindus.

Communal riots and clashes which erupted in different parts of the country deteriorated the situation further.

Effects of Noncooperation Movement on Khilafat Movement 1919

Gandhi being a shrewd politician launched the Non-cooperation Movement side by side the Khilafat Movement. His plan was to exploit the religious sentiments of Muslims and used their efforts for gaining political ends. He partially succeeded in his objective when all leaders of the Khilafat Movement were arrested and Muslims were left leaderless. At that time Gandhi, who had no interest in Caliphate, assumed the leadership of Khilafat Movement and turned it into a political protest.

This was the first time since the fall of Muslims rule in India when Muslims and Hindus worked together and followed the same strategy. It for a short created social, political and economic harmony and Muslims enjoyed peace for some time. This harmony, however, could not last long when Shuddi and Sanghatan movements begun converting Muslims to Hinduism forcefully.

The untimely decision of Gandhi to call off the Noncooperation Movement was a severe blow to Khilafat Movement, which could not achieve its goals. This created a great mistrust amongst Muslims who were now sure that they were used by the Hindu leaders for their political goals.

End of Khilafat Movement 1919

For the Muslims the Khilafat Movement ended in complete failure. Gandhi’s sudden call off the Noncooperation Movement was the biggest cause of the failure of Khilafat Movement. However in Turkey the institution of Caliphate, for which the Muslims of India had struggled so sincerely, was abolished by Mustafa Kamal Ataturk on 1st November 1922. The last Caliph Sultan Mehmed Vahideddin was banished from the country in 1924.

  • Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!