The post explains “Non Cooperation Movement of Gandhi Notes. Causes of non cooperation movement. First non cooperation movement. Objectives of the non cooperation movement. Khilafat and non cooperation movement. Importance of the non-cooperation movement. Conclusion of the non cooperation movement.” Pakistan Studies MCQs Test Online
Non Cooperation Movement of Gandhi Notes
At the time when Muslims all over the Subcontinent had launched Khilafat Movement, Gandhi being a shrewd politician, realized the importance of time and decided to turned the events in favor of his party. He planned to exploit the religious sentiments of the Muslims and use the platform of Khilafat Movement to pressurize the government to come to his terms. His objective was Sawaraj, self-rule. He launched Non Cooperation Movement in 1920’s and demanded the Indians to boycott the British institutions and goods. Gandhi had promised Sawaraj, self-rule, to the people of India within a year, only if they kept to the Non Cooperation Movement.
Causes of Non Cooperation Movement
The Gandhi Non Cooperation Movement was more like a reaction than a campaign. It was a reaction to the British Indian Government oppressive policies such as Rowlatt Act 1919. It too was a response to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
The British Empire was passing through hard times. For Gandhi and his fellow politicians it was the right time to pressurize the government and get Swaraj, self-rule. The World War I had inflected huge cost on the empire which had made the Great Britain weak. Demanding freedom at this point of time was a perfect strategy as the empire apparently was not in a position to bear this stress.
To compensate its war waging cost that incurred on British Government during World War I, the government levied heavy taxes on the people of India. This had created many economic hardships for the common Indians. They were no more ready to pay the cost of someone else war.
The British factory made goods have also made many hardships for the Indian artisans and home made goods. Other factors included the economic exploitation of India and conscription being employed by the British Indian Army to gather enough recruits during the First World War.
First Non Cooperation Movement
Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement was a political campaign which aimed at persuading the British Government through noncooperation to grant them self-governance. Gandhi launched First Noncooperation Movement on 4th September 1920.
Objectives of the Non Cooperation Movement
One of the major objectives of launching the Non Cooperation Movement by Gandhi was to get freedom from British Raj. Gandhi began the movement at a time when the First World War had just ended and the Great Britain, though was victorious in the war but it had inflected huge cost on the empire. The British Empire was passing through its hard time. For Gandhi and other Congress leaders it was the right time and an opportunity to compel and pressurize the government to get freedom.
Freedom though was the first priority and goal set by the Gandhi but in case of failure, he had also set some other objectives. He wanted to pressurize the government to the extent that it readily approve majority of their demands.
The Congress leaders were not satisfied with the provisions of Montague Chelmsford Reforms 1919. With the movement they wanted to show the government their political power and get new political reforms.
The political strength of Muslim League was growing day by day which was troublesome for the Congress leaders. They did not want to see Muslim League grow to a political giant and assembled all Muslims under its umbrella. In this way it would be very difficult for them to approve demands of their choice from the government. To halt this from happening they decided to demand immediate freedom from the British Government.
Khilafat And Non Cooperation Movement
By the time Gandhi started its Non Cooperation Movement, Khilafat Movement launched by the Muslims was in its full swing. It is believed that Gandhi launched his Non Cooperation Movement side by side the Khilafat Movement on purpose. Being a shrewd politician his plan was to exploit the religious sentiments of Muslims and used their efforts for gaining his political ends. He partially succeeded in his objective when all leaders of the Khilafat Movement were arrested and Muslims were left leaderless. At that point of time Gandhi, who had no interest in Caliphate, assumed the leadership of Khilafat Movement and turned it into completely a political protest. Whatever his objective was but it was the first time since the fall of Muslims rule in India when Muslims and Hindus worked together and followed the same strategy. It for a short time created social, political and economic harmony and Muslims enjoyed peace for some time.
Importance of the Non Cooperation Movement
With the Non Cooperation Movement Gandhi gave tough time to British Government of India. Both Khilafat and Non Cooperation Movement had put the government in troublesome condition. It is believe that the government was about to yield to their demands but unfortunately the Chauri Chaura incident took place and Gandhi took the decision of calling off the movements in hastily. If both the movements had left continued, it is assumed that the political structure of India would be different today.
Though both the movements ended without achieving any of its goals but it did one thing, the government eased its policies and the people of India finally took a breath of relieve.
The British Government of India since its establishment in 1857 experienced the united struggle of Indians for the first time. It was an unlikely event which they had never imagined and it made the government worried about such events in the future.
Though for a short time but the Khilafat and Non Cooperation Movement brought all Indians together. It was for the first time since the fall of Mughal rule in India that both Hindus and Muslims worked together. It was an amazing experience for both the communities in the century.
Conclusion of the Non Cooperation Movement
Though intended to be non-violent, the Non Cooperation Movement was eventually called off by Gandhi in February 1922 following the Chauri Chaura incident. After police opened fire on a crowd of protesters, killing and injuring several, the protesters followed the police back to their station and set the station ablaze. Twenty two policemen along with the shooters were burned alive inside the police station. Gandhi had not expected an incident like this. It shook the Indian Subcontinent. Eventually Gandhi had to call off his Non Cooperation Movement which also ended the Khilafat Movement.