The post explains “Short Note On Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Causes of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Consequences of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Who ordered the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?”
Short Note On Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
The Rowlatt Acts were met by widespread anger and discontent among Indians, notably in the province of Punjab. People came out on streets in anger and demanded the immediate withdrawal of the acts. Soon the protests were spread to other parts of the country. In early April, Gandhi called for a one day general strike throughout the country. The news of arrest of prominent leaders and their disposal from city sparked violent protests in Amritsar on 10th April 1919. Situation in the city worsen when soldiers opened fire on the protestors.
To normalize the situation in the country, a general ban on public gathering was issued. Moreover a force of several dozen troops commanded by Brigadier General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer was given the task of restoring order in the city.
On the afternoon of 13th April 13 1919, a crowd of at least 10,000 men, women, and children gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab which was nearly completely enclosed by walls and had only one exit.
Dyer and his soldiers arrived and sealed off the exit. Without warning, the troops opened direct fire on the crowd, reportedly shooting hundreds of rounds until they ran out of ammunition. It is not certain how many died in the bloodbath, but, according to one official report, an estimated 379 people were killed, and about 1,200 more were wounded. After they ceased firing, the troops immediately withdrew from the place, leaving behind the dead and wounded.
Causes of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Since day one the agenda of British Empire for Subcontinent was never like the same as Muslim invaders, who settled here and contributed in the development and prosperity of the country. Unlike Muslims the British Government of India objective was the exploitation of the region to flourish their home country, the Great Britain. They never treated Indians as their own people. This attitude of the government for long had created a gap between the people and the government and an element of bitterness was growing day by day among the Indians.
During the World War I, Indians had to participate and wage a war that was never really theirs. Similarly they had to pay the cost of a war that was waging thousand miles away from their homeland and still they paid its cost both with their blood and wealth. After the end of the war they were expecting constitutional reforms and more rights for them but instead they got Rowlatt Act.
The Indians after the World War I were demanding more rights for which they had started raising their voice. The British Government officials in India due to their hegemonic stature didn’t like the new posture of Indians and they were annoyed with their demands.
The British Government of India wanted to control and normalize the situation in the country with the use of the force. The event would never have occurred if the government has not adopted the coercive policy.
Consequences of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
The massacre widened the gap between the Indians and the government and hate and distrustfulness among the people for the government grew.
Many moderate Indians abandoned their loyalty towards the British Government and ceded their honorary posts and jobs.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre led to the development of the element of nationalism among Indians. It fuelled greater nationalist zeal among the Indian populace leading to the launch of the non-cooperation movement.
The event also left a permanent scar on the Indo British relations. The Indians and British after the massacre could never come close to one another like before.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre also worried Indians about their future. The event compelled them to give a serious pondering over to the freedom movement.
Chauri Chaura incident is believed to be the direct reaction of Jallianwala Bagh massacre. The incident though occurred very later but the prompt and fierce reaction of the people to the police firing was mainly due the massacre of innocent people occurred in 1919.
Conclusion of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
The troops on General Dyer order opened direct fire on the people who had gathered at the Jallianwala Bagh without any prior warning. It is not known for exact how long they kept shooting but it is believed that the troop fired hundreds of round. They kept shooting until they ran out of ammunition.