The article is about “Deoband Movement and its impacts. Deoband Movement and its educational, political and social services. Tehreek I Deoband and its social, political and religious impacts. Darul Uloom Deoband notable alumni. Deoband Movement and its impacts.”
Deoband Movement And Its Impacts
When Muslims of India in Nineteenth century, under the rule of British, felt the need of an Islamic institution that could guide Muslims and fill the gap left by many prominent educational institutions, they launched Deoband Movement. Deoband Movement built a madrasa at Deoband that rendered valueable services for the religious education and uplift of Muslims of India.
Deoband Madrasa History
A short summary of the history of Deoband madrasa, also known as Darul uloom-i-Deoband is given in below paragraphs.
Need Of The Establishment Of Darul Uloom i Deoband: In Nineteenth century, after the fall of Muslims’ rule in India, many Muslim educationalists have established educational institutions for the training and education of Muslims of India who were then at the mercy of both British and Hindus. These institutions did great work and helped a lot in the renaissance of Muslim society in Subcontinent. The only shortcoming of them was their total reliance on western modern education and distance from religious learning. In such case a gap had left for the creation of an institution that could impart Islamic education to the Muslims of Subcontinent. To fill this gap a Madrasa was established by prominent Muslim scholars at Deoband, that was known as Deoband Madrasa.
Founders Of Deoband: It is believed that Haji Muhammad Abid, a repudiated Muslim sufi and saint had floated the idea of the establishment of a Madrasa for imparting religious education to the Muslims of Subcontinent for the first time. Haji Muhammad Abid after taking start of the Madrasa informed Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and requested him to teach at the Madrasa. For his selfless and valuable services, Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautvi is also considered as the founder of Deoband Movement and the Madrasa.
Establishment Of Deoband Madrasa: Deoband Movement was launched by establishing a madrasa at Deoband, a small town of Saharanpur. The madrasa was launched in a small Masjid that began functioning on April 14, 1866. The madrasa was named as Deoband Madrasa that soon became the center of Islamic learning after its establishment.
Administrative Structure: A managing committee consisted of Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, Maulana Fazalur Rehman, Maulana Zulfiqar Ali and Maulana Muhammad Mahmood was set up. Maulana Muhammad Yaqub was appointed as the Headmaster of the institution.
Educational Pattern: In the teaching of Quran, Hadith and other religious disciplines, Deoband Madrasa followed the pattern of Madrasa i Rahimiya, established by Shah Abdur Rahim, the father of Shah Waliullah.
In spite of being an Islamic educational institution, Darul uloom i Deoband had also British educational system features. These features included the division of students in regular academic groups, maintenance of attendance registers and written examination. These features produced amazing results both in the academic and administrative structure of the institution.
Construction Of Building: In the beginning Deoband Madrasa was established in a small Mosque but soon work on the establishment of a building for the Madrasa began. A huge building was constructed with different departments. The most prominent and important departments among them were Dar ul Hadith and Dar ul Tafsir.
Services Of Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi: Though Haji Muhammad Abid had founded Deoband Madrasa but Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi through his selfless and valuable efforts built the stature and scope of madrasa not only in the Subcontinent but in the whole world. He worked day and night and spread Deoband Movement to every corner of the continent. Due to his sincere efforts the number of students in Madrasa grew amazingly within no time.
Services Of Other Prominent Scholars: Other prominent scholars who worked at Darul Uloom Deoband includes Sheikh ul Hind Maulana Mahmud ul Hassan and Maulana Shabir Ahmed Usmani.
Educational Services Of Darul Uloom Deoband
Soon after its establishment Madrasa Deoband raised to an international standard that shed lights of religious education on every corner of the world. For its educational standard it was rated next to Al Azhar University of Cairo, Egypt.
Darul Uloom Deoband successfully filled the gap of imparting religious education left by many prominent educational institutions and movements of that time such as Aligarh Movement. It imparted religious education in different disciplines such as Quran, Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, Islamic History, and Arabic and so on.
Some educational impacts of Deoband Movement on Muslim Society in Subcontinent are given below.
- It expertise Muslims particularly students in religious education
- It balanced education system in Muslim community of Subcontinent
- It also inspired many other people who later on opened up new institution on the same pattern in other parts of the Subcontinent
- It produced prominent religious scholars
- Darul Uloom Deoband became center of Islamic learning in South Asia
Political Services Of Darul Uloom Deoband
In political sphere, students, teachers and other administrative staff of Darul Uloom Deoband were divided in two groups on the basis of their political views and ideologies. A major portion of Darul Uloom Deoband members was supporting All India National Congress while the rest under Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi and Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani were favoring All India Muslim League. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi group formed Jamiat ul Ulema i Islam while the other group lead by Maulana Husain Ahmed Madni and Mufti Kifayat Ullah, also known as Madni group, formed Jamiat ul Ulema i Hind.
Jamiat ul Ulema i Islam supported Pakistan Movement while Jamiat ul Ulema i Hind worked in collaboration with Congress and they were against the partition of India.
Some political services that Deoband Movement rendered in Subcontinent for the uplift of Muslims are given below.
- It backed Pakistan movement whole heartedly
- It supported Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah socially and politically
- It gave freedom movement a holy cause – enforcement of religion Islam in new state
Religious Services Of Darul Uloom Deoband
Some of the religious services and impacts of Deoband Movement are given below.
- Darul Uloom Deoband proved as the custodian of Islam and Islamic teachings in Subcontinent
- It produced prominent religious scholars
- Soon after its establishment it became the center of Islamic learning in South Asia
Social Services Of Deoband Movement
Some of the social services of Deoband Movement are given below.
- United Muslims on one page
- Morally supported Muslims in hard times of their lives
- Proved custodian of Muslim lives, culture and traditions in Subcontinent
Deoband Movement by establishing Deoband Madrasa rendered valuable services in religious sphere in a time when there was a dire need of such an institution. It not only guided Muslim community in dark time of their lives but also produced very learned religious scholars who later on kept the light of Islam alive in Subcontinent and they are working even today.
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