Energy Crisis in Pakistan Essay CSS. Energy Resources in Pakistan. Causes Of Energy Crisis in Pakistan. Pakistan’s Energy Problems And Their Effects. Energy Crisis in Pakistan Essay CSS.
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Energy Crisis in Pakistan Essay CSS
It is without exaggeration and beyond the doubt that energy has become one of the most significant needs of the human being. The utility of energy has greatly evolved over the last century. The whole range of human activities including dwelling, trade and commerce, industry, transportation and agriculture has mostly become depended on energy. Globally, energy prosperity has become very crucial to overcome fundamental social problems such as poverty, hunger, disease and illiteracy. The growing human reliance on energy has been paralleled by a string of challenges that are both local and global in nature. It is increasingly understood that ensuring availability of sufficient, affordable and environmentally friendly energy is one of the major challenges faced by the world in twenty first century.
Pakistan is one of the most populous, geographically and strategically important countries situated in South Asia. The energy supply base of Pakistan consists of two major segments i.e. commercial and non-commercial. At the time of independence in 1947, the proportion of energy received through commercial channels is reported to be equivalent to about 1.2 million tone oil. For the total population of about 33 million, the installed electricity generating capacity was 50 MW. The major consuming sectors such as industrial, transport, domestic agriculture and commercial had very little reliance on commodity. Particularly the industrial sector was almost non-existent and motorized travelling was not very common. At present the non-commercial base makes up a considerably a large proportion of the total supplies in the country.
Energy Resources in Pakistan
The energy resources being consumed in Pakistan at present are broadly classified into four groups: i. Hydropower ii. Thermal Power iii. Nuclear power and iv. Renewable energy resources
Hydropower is one of the most important and reliable energy resources for Pakistan. This has played a vital role in meeting national electricity requirements in a secure and cost effective manner. In 1947, only two hydropower projects of collectively 10.7 MW existed in Pakistan. After independence hydropower development remained sluggish due to two major factors:
- the water dispute between Pakistan and India and
- Lack of financial resources required to construct large scale dams
With the establishment of Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) in 1958, the installed hydropower capacity grew from 52 MW to 253 MW over a period of two years. Hydropower currently makes around 32.7% of the total installed power generation capacity in the country.
Thermal power plants were initially established as a back up to hydropower. Transmission losses have become an important issue over long distances. Thus, thermal power was intended to facilitate the areas difficult to be served by hydropower.
Nuclear power accounts for around 2.3% of the installed capacity in Pakistan. It is controlled by the state owned department Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). In May 1972, Pakistan’s first nuclear power plant KANUPP was commissioned. The plant operated safely for 30 years and generated 1.7 billion KWH before retiring in December 2002.
Pakistan does not have rich oil and gas reserves. The oil reserves in particular are very limited. After the independence the first major exploratory success was the discovery of the Sui Gas field in 1952. In 1961, the government of Pakistan established the Oil and Gas Development Corporation (OGDC).
Pakistan is amongst the most gas dependent economics of the world. With the discovery of natural gas reserves in 1952, its share in energy supply gradually rose to such an extent that at present it has become the backbone of the national energy base. It contributes to about 48% of the total primary energy supplies.
Causes Of Energy Crisis in Pakistan
The present power crises in Pakistan are self-inflicted problem resulting for years of poor policies and reckless attitude on the part of concerned authorities. The scale of the problems has now almost grown beyond an instant solution. This has happened at a tie when energy is considered to be the backbone of human activities and a vital commodity for the survival of modern economies.
Some of the major causes of power shortage in Pakistan are:
- Political instability and short term policies.
- Deadlock on major power projects such as Kalabagh hydropower project
- Devaluation of Pakistani rupee
- Economic crises in the country
- Lack of a comprehensive energy policy
- Decreasing gas supply and dependence on oil
- Unrealistic power tariffs (low investments)
- Low payment recovery
- Inefficient revenue collection
- Overpopulation, over usage
- Global price hike of energy resources such as Oil
- Russia-Ukraine conflict effects
Pakistan’s Energy Problems And Their Effects
The acute energy shortfall has many negative implications for the economy of Pakistan. It has;
- Severely damaged industrial sector of the country
- Textile industry couldn’t give its 100% output because of electricity shortfall
- Many small to medium level industries have shut down their business
- Halt the general economic growth of the country
- Gross Domestic Product on decline
The energy problems faced by the country cannot be addressed without fully utilizing its hydropower potential. Pakistan needs to learn lessons from the on-going situation and hydropower development thought the world and particularly in the neighboring countries. Every potential project needs to capitalize to ensure the development of hydropower, wind power, nuclear power and coal reserves and biomass for the national electricity supply mix. Moreover, geographical location, topography and climate conditions of Pakistan are very ideal for exploiting solar energy. On average almost all parts of the country have more than 300 sunshine days’ year. This available level of solar radiation makes the climatic conditions of Pakistan highly favorable for the production of solar energy by exploiting different solar energy applications such as the solar thermal power, solar water heating, solar photovoltaic, solar desalination, solar cooking and solar crop dying.
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