The article discusses “Second wave of feminism. Second feminist movement. The goals of the second wave of feminism. How did the second wave of feminism affect society? CSS. Gender Studies Notes.”
Second Wave Of Feminism
To highlight and resolve issues that are related to sexuality and reproductive rights of women, Second Wave of Feminism emerged in 1960’s to 1970’s and it continued till 1990’s. The work of some prominent Socialist feminist such as Rosa Luxemburg, Alexandra Kollontai and Emma Goldman paved the way for Second Wave of Feminism.
Who Started The Second Wave Of Feminism?
Second Wave Feminism was the continuation of first wave. The work of Rosa Luxemburg, Alexandra Kollontai and Emma Goldman who continuously fought both politically and in their private lives for the welfare and women’s rights are also considered responsible for the birth of the second wave feminism. The movement formally began with a protest against the Miss America parade in 1968 and 1969 in Atlantic City. Radical feminist of second wave imitated it as “Cattle Parade” and argued that such functions are meant to reduce women to objects of beauty dominated by patriarchy. It is believed that Betty Friedan’s book “The Faminine Mystique” that came out in 1963 and only in three years its three million copies were sold, laid the early foundation of the Second Wave Feminism.
Second Wave of Feminsm was closely linked with radical voices of women’s empowerment and differential rights that were raised by neo-Marxism and Psychoanalysis.
Second Wave Of Feminism Goals
The movement aimed at gaining the following rights for women;
- Right of abortion
- Right of divorce
- Right of non-legislative partnership
The movement also aimed at highlighting the following issues;
- Un-equal pay
- Domestic violence
- Sexual division and sexism in media
Second Wave of Feminsm revolved basically around the passing of the Equal Rights Amendment Bill to the constitution of United States of America (USA). Equal Rights Amendment Bill was a proposed amendment that aimed at guarantying equal rights to all American citizens irrespective of their sex.
End Of Second Wave
As Second Wave of Femnism emerged amid so many other social movements, it was easily marginalized and so it could not successfully achieve anything for women. Unlike the first wave of feminsm which was dominated by middle class, white western women, Second Wave of Feminsm was headed by women of color and developing nations.