The post discusses “Kashmir Issue and role of United Nations. Role of UN to resolve Kashmir Issue. United Nations (UN) mediation in Kashmir Issue. Kashmir Issue and role of United Nations.”
Kashmir Issue And Role Of United Nations
United Nations Organization (UNO) has always played an important role in maintaining peace and order in the region of Jammu and Kashmir and its surrounding. It created United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) when India took the matter of Kashmir into UN. Similarly it also created United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) that monitored Cease Fire Line (present day LoC). In resolving the issue of Kashmir between Pakistan and India it has played the following mediation role.
Mc Naughton Proposal
Mac Naughton proposed simultaneous withdrawal of regular forces from the region except some Indian forces that will remain in the area for security reason.
India rejected proposal on the ground that it is treating both Pakistan and India equal which was not acceptable to India.
Sir Owen Dixon Proposal
Sir Owen Dixon, an Australian Judge and diplomat proposed the following options for solving Kashmir Issue.
Dixon’s First Proposal: Area on both sides of Cease Fire Line be demilitarized. On Pakistan side it will be governed by local authorities under UN supervision.
India rejected it due to fear of biasedness.
On Indian side a UN officer will inspect each magistrate work in all districts.
Nehru rejected it in the basis of intrusion on state’s sovereignty.
Dion’s Second Proposal: A neutral government be established by respectable non political people in the valley for a period of Six months under UN supervision. Membership in government be equally splited between Muslims and Hindus. After completion of government tenure, plebiscite be held in the area that will decide the future of the valley.
Dixon’s Third Proposal: To install an administrative body completely made up of United Nations representatives.
India again rejected the proposal.
Dixon’s Fourth Proposal: Dixon fourth proposal was to held regional plebiscite instead of holding general plebiscite in the region.
Nehru presented partition-cum-plebiscite plan. Pakistan rejected the idea and argued that either plebiscite be held in the entire state or region be divided on religious lines.
Dixon’s Fifth Proposal: Sheikh Abdullah administration be held in commission while the plebiscite was held.
India wanted the presence of her troops in the region during limited plebiscite while Dixon wanted the complete removal of forces of both the states.
American ambassador to India, Loy Henderson in his assessment had concluded that in plebiscite Kashmir would chose Pakistan over India. Due to this reason plebiscite was not acceptable to India.
Frank Graham’s Proposals
First Proposal: Demilitarization scheme which India rejected right away.
Second Proposal: Gradual reduction of forces to the ratio of 1st January 1949. India again rejected.
Third Proposal: Pakistan reduces forces to a number in between 3000 to 6000 and India in between 12,000 to 16,000. State Militia was not included in these figures. India again rejected.
Indian behavior in Kashmir Issue has always remained non serious and stubborn. She is aware of the outcome of plebiscite and that is why she is afraid of holding it in the valley. According to Cold War historian Robert J. Mc Mahon, American officials during the initial years of the issue knew that India wanted to avoid holding plebiscite by using questionable technicalities.
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