United Nations Security Council Resolutions On Kashmir Issue

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United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Kashmir Issue in 1948

In 1948, United Nations Security Council adopted Four Resolutions regarding Kashmir Issue. These resolutions and their main points along with dates of adoption are given below.

UNSC Resolution 38

Date of Adoption:

  • 17th January 1948

Main Points:

  • Both Pakistan and India should refrain from aggravating the situation.
  • Both states should try to improve situation in the region.

Kashmir Issue Main Points And Its Causes

UNSC Resolution 39

Date of Adoption:

20th January 1948

Mains Points:

  • UNSC setup a commission of three members for solving the issue. One member of commission from Pakistan and one from India while third member to be chosen by both Pakistan and India.
  • Function of commission was to investigate and carry out function in the region as per Security Council demand.

UNSC Resolution 47

Date of Adoption:

  • 21st April 1948

Main Points:

  • Increased the size of commission from Three to Five members established under Resolution 39.
  • Ordered the commission to go to subcontinent and restore peace and do necessary preparation for holding plebiscite.
  • Recommended a three steps process for resolving the issue; a) Pakistan should withdraw all its nationals that have entered Kashmir for the sake of fighting. b) India should reduce its forces to the minimum possible level required for maintaining law and order situation in the valley. c) India should appoint a plebiscite administrator nominated by the UN to conduct free and impartial plebiscite.
  • Both Pakistan and India raised objections over the resolution.
  • On 13th August 1948, after discussion with both governments, the commission unanimously adopted a three part resolution by amending UNSC Resolution 47. Its points were; a) Calling for a complete cease fire. b) Asked Pakistan to withdraw completely and India to reduce military number to lowest possible number. c) Future of Kashmir will be decided in consultation with the commission.

Both parties agreed to cease fire in Kashmir on 1st January 1949.

Kashmir Issue And Role Of United Nations

UNSC Resolution 51

Date of Adoption:

  • 3rd June 1948

Main Points:

Ordered commission established by Resolution 39 to go to disputed area and accomplish duties assigned to them by Resolution47.

United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Kashmir Issue in 1950

In the year 1950, United Nations Security Council has adopted only one resolution regarding Kashmir Issue which is given below.

UNSC Resolution 80

Date of Adoption:

  • March 14, 1950

Main Points:

  • Appointed Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz as the future plebiscite administrator.
  • The resolution called for; i) Simultaneous and progressive demilitarization both Pakistan and India ii) Northern areas to administered by local authorities subject to UN supervision iii) The Council will appoint a UN Representative to assist in the demilitarization programme.

United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Kashmir Issue 1951

Two resolutions were passed by UNSC regarding Kashmir Issue in 1951. These resolutions and their details are given below.

UNSC Resolution 91

Date of Adoption:

March 30, 1951

Main Points:

Based on UN Representative for Pakistan and India, Sir Owen Dixon. According to the report main points of difference for preparing the state of Jammu and Kashmir for holding plebiscite are;

  • Procedure and extent of demilitarization
  • The degree of control over the exercise of the functions of government necessary to ensure a free and fair plebiscite.

Solution Of Kashmir Issue

UNSC Resolution 96

Date of Adoption:

10 November 1951

Main Points:

  • Based on report of UN Representative Frank Graham.
  • In report both Pakistan and India had agreed to work for peaceful settlement of the issue and observance of cease fire.

 United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Kashmir Issue in 1952

Only one resolution had passed by United Nations Security Council in 1952 regarding Kashmir Issue. Its details are given below.

UNSC Resolution 98

Date of Adoption:

December 23, 1952

Main Points:

Urged both states to enter immediately into negotiation under the auspice of UN Representative and reach an agreement on specific number of troops to be remained on each side of Cease Fire Line (today LoC) at the end of previously established period of demilitarization.

Proposed numbers were; i) Azad Forces = 6000  ii)Gilgit and Northern Scouts = 3500  iii) Indian Forces = 18000 (Indian soldiers) + 6000 Local Force

Resolution Of Kashmir Issue Can Bring Peace And Prosperity In The Region

United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Kashmir Issue in 1957

Total three resolutions were passed by UNSC in 1957 regarding Kashmir Issue. These resolutions and their details are given below.

UNSC Resolution 122

Date of Adoption:

January 24, 1957

Main Points:

  • Assembly proposed by Jammu and Kashmir National Conference could not constitute a solution to the problem as defined by UNSC Resolution 91.

UNSC Resolution 123

Date of Adoption:

February 21, 1957

Main Points:

  • Requested UNSC president to visit the area along with government of Pakistan and India and examine proposals.
  • Also requested the president to report back to council not later than 15 April.

UNSC Resolution 126

Date of Adoption:

December 2, 1957

Main Points:

  • Based on the report of UNSC president.
  • Requested both the government to refrain from aggravating the situation.
  • Asked UNSC Representative to visit Subcontinent and report with recommendations.

United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Kashmir Issue in 1965

Total five resolutions were passed by the United Nations Security Council regarding Kashmir Issue in 1965. These resolutions along with main points are given below.

UNSC Resolution 209

Date of Adoption:

September 4, 1965

Main Points:

  • Immediately cease fighting and return to their previous position along Cease Fire Line.
  • Fully cooperate with UN Military Observer Group in Pakistan.
  • Asked UN Secretary General to report back within Three days after implementation of the resolution. 

UNSC Resolution 210

Date of Adoption

September 6, 1965

Main Points:

  • Based on UN Secretary General report.
  • Called on both states to cease hostilities immediately in the region.
  • Armed forces of both states should return to positions they held before August 5, 1965.

UNSC Resolution 211

Date of Adoption:

September 20, 1965

Main Points:

  • Council fixed time 0700 Hour GMT on 22 September 1965 for cease fire to take effect
  • Both forces return to positions they held before August 5, 1965

UNSC Resolution 214

Date of Adoption:

September 27, 1965

Main Points:

  • Expressed concerns over unheeded requests of cease fire made in Resolutions 209, 210 and 211.
  • Request both states to honor their commitment to cease fire.

UNSC Resolution 215

Date of Adoption:

November 5, 1965

Main Points:

  • Demanded representatives of Pakistan and India to meet with representative of UN Secretary General to purpose schedule for withdrawal after all requests made for cease fire failed.

United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Kashmir Issue in 1971

Total two resolutions were passed by UNSC in 1971 on Kashmir Issue.

UNSC Resolution 303

Date of Adoption:

December 6, 1971

Main Points:

  • Due to lack of unanimity in Council’s meeting to exercise its responsibility, the question was referred to UN General Assembly.

UNSC Resolution 308

Date of Adoption:

December 21, 1971

Main Points:

  • Demanded durable cease-fire
  • Called on international assistance in the relief of suffering and rehabilitation of refugees
Conclusion

By keeping aside those resolutions that are either related to war or to disagreement between the two parties over some matter we see that rest of the resolutions talks about the demilitarization of the area and the holding of a free and impartial plebiscite that will decide the future of the valley. 

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