Solution Of Kashmir Issue CSS Essay

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Solution Of Kashmir Issue CSS Essay

For the solution of Kashmir Issue various solution options have suggested by United Nations Security Council (UNSC) through its resolutions and some other independent organizations and scholars. Some of them are given below.  

solution of kashmir issue

Kashmir Issue Main Points And Its Causes

Right of Self Determination

The term ‘self determination’ as per United Nations General Assembly’s Declaration of 1970 means “the right of all people to freely determine their political status”. As Kashmir Issue involves three parties; Pakistan, India and the people of Kashmir (Kashmires) therefore Pakistan and India cannot decide the future of Kashmir and its people on their own.

In other words, it means the people of Kashmir should be given the option to determine and they themselves decide their future.

Plebiscite Option 1

United Nations Security Council (UNSC) in its resolutions of 13th August 1948 and 5th January 1949 had proposed the option of conducting a referendum for solving the issue. India also had accepted the option of plebiscite in its initial complaint against Pakistan in United Nations on 1st January 1948.

United Nations Security Council Resolutions On Kashmir Issue

Option of United Nations Organization Trusteeship

As per this option both Pakistan and India will withdraw their forces from their respective occupied territories of the valley and command and control of the region will be handed over to the government of the united valley which will work under the supervision of UNO. The territory will remain independent on this pattern for Ten years, after which a plebiscite will be conducted, which will decide the future of valley.

Partition Option

This option was presented by United Nations Organization special representative, Sir Owen Dixon in his final report (1950-51). This option suggests holding regional referendum instead of general in the whole valley.

India rejected the option by stating that Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of Indian Federation.

Kashmir Issue And Role Of United Nations

Trieste Type Solution

As the name indicates, the option is based on Trieste Issue solution (between Italy and Yugoslavia – 1975). The option suggests that territories of Jammu and Kashmir that lies immediately on both sides of Line of Control (LoC) shall be made autonomous bodies while the Line of Control (LoC) shall be served as a soft border between them. Remaining areas of the valley on both sides of the border shall be merged with both Pakistan and India respectively.

Option of Status Quo

As per this option the issue shall be resolved by accepting the present status of territories control and the Line of Control (LoC) as an international border by both Pakistan and India.

India is wholeheartedly in favor of this option because she wants to portrait a soft posture of herself to world by showing that she ceded its territory to Pakistan for solving the issue while Pakistan is against this option because it is against the will and right of self determination of the people of Kashmir.

Pakistan And The Future Of Kashmir Cause

Partition Option 2

This option has been given by a group of Western scholars. According to this option the territory of Jammu and Kashmir shall be divided on cultural, religious and linguistic lines.

Independence Option

The independence option which is generally known as the “Third Option” suggests the restoration of pre-partition Jammu and Kashmir State.

This is not a viable solution as the state would be dependent for many matters on both Pakistan and India who have fought many wars to control it.

Indian Motives Behind Revoking Article 370

The Irish Model

The option is based on “Good Friday Agreement” signed between Ireland and United Kingdom in April 1998. Suggestions of this option are given below.

  • A Pak-India Commission should be established that discuss boundary issues and monitor Line of Control (LoC).
  • Demilitarization of the area on both sides of LoC.
  • A Three Way Commission should be established on internal affairs.
  • Pakistan and India commitment to strengthen local institutions.
  • Establishment of issue specific bodies that shall look into water, power, tourism and finance.
  • Scheduled consultative talks of Indian government with all parties of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Scheduled consultative talks of Pakistani government with all parties of Azad Kashmir.
  • Consultative talks among parties for minorities’ protection.
  • Consultative mechanism for dialogue.
  • Allow Human Rights monitoring organization.

Resolution Of Kashmir Issue Can Bring Peace And Prosperity In The Region 


The above mentioned solution options are those that are suggested by various organizations including United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and some independent scholars. The most viable and applicable option among them is the right of self determination as it is suggested by UNSC time and again in its initial resolutions and also accepted by India and Pakistan in the beginning.

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