Kashmir Issue Main Points And Its Causes CSS

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Kashmir Issue Main Points And Its Causes

Since the partition of Indo Subcontinent in 1947, the valley of Kashmir has remained the bone of contention between the two close neighboring states, Pakistan and India. The two states have fought three major wars for taking control over the valley including the war of 1947, 1965 and 1999 and several skirmishes as well.

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Location And Population

The valley of Jammu and Kashmir is located in the northern part of Indo-Pak Subcontinent. At the time of partition, it was the biggest state in Subcontinent and occupied 84,471 square miles of territory. The 1941 census shows that the total population of the state was 4,000,000 which comprised of 77 per cent Muslims, 20 per cent Hindus and 3 per cent other religious minorities.

Importance Of Kashmir For Pakistan And India

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Image Source: Courtesy to BBC
Control of The Valley Before Partition

After taking control of Subcontinent, British Government in 1846 sold the state for 7.5 million Rupees to a Dogra ruler, Gulab Singh, through the Treaty of Amritsar. At the time of partition the state was rules by Gulab Singh successor, Mahraja Hari Singh.

United Nations Security Council Resolutions On Kashmir Issue

Kashmir Accession To India

Mahraja Hari Singh due to his political affiliation with Hindus had an inclination towards India for accession but due to pressure from his Muslim subjects, he was unable to do so. For pleasing and easing the mushrooming pressure of his populace, Mahraja Hari Singh concluded a treaty with Pakistan for maintaining cultural and religious connections with the country.

Pakistan’s Failure in Kashmir Issue

 Soon after the conclusion of treaty, panned communal riots were erupted in the state, in result of which more than 237,000 Muslims were massacred and more than 500,000 were forced to migrate to Pakistan. Objective was to create anarchy in the state to make accession to India possible.

Kashmir Issue And Role Of United Nations

When situation in the valley became out of Mahraja control, he appealed Indian Government for assistance. Indian Government put the condition of accession of state to union before taking any action which Mahraja per-planned accepted readily.

1947 War Over Kashmir

On 27th October 1947, Indian troops began landing in the valley at Sarinagar airfield. Quaid-e-Azam ordered the Commander in Chief of Pakistan army, General Gracy to counter attack and protect the lives and properties of people in the valley but he refused to take any action on the pre text that he could not such action without the order of the supreme commander of Indo-Pakistan armed forces, who was Lord Mount Batten.

Pakistan And The Future Of Kashmir Cause

Volunteers from Pashtoons Tribal belt entered the area who along with the Kashmiris fought against the Indian forces. Losing ground in the valley, India took the issue to United Nations for solution. United Nations Security Council on request of India passed two resolutions on 3rdAugust 1948 and 5th Januray 1949 and urged the belligerent states to stop fighting forthwith. A temporary boundary line was drawn by United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP).

Freedom Movement

First freedom movement in the valley emerged in late 1930’s and early 1940’s. The movement was aimed at protecting Muslims’ rights, lives and properties in the valley.

Indian Motives Behind Revoking Article 370

The present day freedom movement has begun in 1989, and it aims at providing all basic human rights to Kashmiris including the right of self determination.

Control Of Kashmir Valley Today

Today India controls 55 per cent land area and 70 per cent population of the valley. Pakistan controls 30 per cent area and China 15 per cent. Details of the area control are as under.

  • India controls Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh and Siachen.
  • Pakistan controls Azad Kashmir, Gilgit Baltistan.
  • China controls Shaksgam and Aksai Chin.

Indus Water Treaty Dispute And Its Resolution Mechanism


For resolving Kashmir Issue on urgent basis United Nations Security Council has passed different resolutions, all of which demands the right of self determination for the people of Kashmir. India should not forget that only the resolution of Kashmir issue can bring peace and prosperity in the region.

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